Long Exposure

That Lens Isn't Wide Enough

This past weekend, I met up with a small group of friends to do some waterfall photography in the back woods of North Georgia.  I am always up for waterfall photography!  When you throw in nice weather conditions and a waterfall I've never visited before, I will be even more excited.

I wanted to make sure I was traveling light for the trip, so I only took the Canon 5D IV and the new Tamron 24-70mm G2 Lens.  This was my second chance to try out the new Tamron Lens.  I have no idea how they did it, but they managed to make it even better than the previous 24-70, which I used more than any other lens in my arsenal. 

One of the falls we visited was Crow Creek Falls.  It has two parts, an Upper Crow Creek Falls and a Lower Crow Creek Falls.  I enjoyed the upper falls much more and spent more time photographing it. 

Did I mention that I only brought my 24-70mm lens?  When I typically shoot these water scenes, I like to use a wide angle lens and anchor the foreground with something.  In my experience going with a wider lens, like a 15-30mm is usually too wide for these scenes.  It also presents a bit of another problem in the fact that you will absolutely need a circular polarizer for these scenes...and although I have the polarizer setup for that lens, it is bulky and takes a bit of work to assemble.  I went the lazy route and stuck with the 24-70mm lens and its easy peasy, screw on polarizer.

Aperture-priority, 2.5 sec, f/16, ISO 100, 24mm

I wanted to use this group of rocks and small cascade as my foreground anchor, but when I tried that at 24mm I was losing the main waterfall in my composition.  I need to be wider!  Crap, I was lazy and didn't bring my wider lens.  What did I do?  I took two shots.  One for the foreground, then another including the main waterfall in the background overlapping the scene by about 30%.  In Lightroom I used the Photo Merge feature to create a panoramic out of the two images.  I got the composition I wanted and I could still be a little lazy by only bringing one lens...winner winner chicken dinner!

Image made with Canon 5D IV, Tamron 24-70mm G2 Lens and Sirui Circular Polarizer.  Gear supported by a Sirui W-2204 Tripod and K-20x Ballhead.

Important, Overlooked Items For Waterfall Photography

Yesterday, I headed to Southern Tennessee to do some waterfall photography.  The places I went I had visited several times in the past, but these are also places that could never get old.

When I left the house it was steadily sprinkling rain and had been for several hours.  Perfect weather!  When I got out to start photographing, of course the rain got heavier.  However, I was prepared.

Aside from all of the critically important things, like a solid tripod and circular polarizing filter, there are several things that often get overlooked that can make you leave happier.  First, a lens cloth.  I took several yesterday, and needed them all.  Even if it isn't raining steadily, a lens cloth can be used to wipe water spots off the front of your filter.  I tend to create wide angle compositions and put my lens really close to a cascade.  I place this cascade in the foreground to anchor the image.  Even it is isn't raining, splash from the cascade finds it's way onto the front of my filter.  The lens cloth saves the day!  There isn't much worse than getting home and finding blobs all over your image.  Another important item is a shower cap.  Although keeping my hair looking stellar is of utmost importance, I am using the shower cap to keep my camera and lens dry.  It is cheap, and works remarkably well.  I have a weather sealed camera body and lens, but I still throw the shower cap on as added protection.  It's not a bad idea to have one even if it isn't raining, too.  It can keep those splashes off of the camera.  A good item to keep in the camera bag is a terry cloth.  Typically if I am putting my camera in the bag and it is even a little wet, I will wrap it in the terry cloth and let the cloth absorb any moisture.  I never "wipe" the camera.  This could force moisture into tiny cracks and crevasses.  The best method is the dab the areas, or just wrap it up and let the cloth do the work.  Silica Gel is another item I keep in the camera bag.  You know those little packets you get in packages that come with the "do not eat" warning.  Those are designed to absorb moisture.  They can be purchased cheap online, or you can just save them from any packages you receive.  I typically keep a few pouches in my camera bag at all times, but I especially make sure I have them in there if I am going to be shooting near water.  A few last things to consider are bath towels and a change of clothes.  These items can save you from a long, soaked, cold ride home.  

Here is one of the images I made yesterday at Short Springs Natural Area in Tullahoma, TN.  This is such a great area to visit if you are nearby and love photographing water.  

Aperture-priority, 6 sec, f/16, ISO 100

This image was made using my Canon 5D IV, Tamron 24-70 G2 Lens, Sirui Circular Polarizer and Sirui W-2204 Tripod.

Water...Of Course!

With all the storm damage in Cades Cove, especially to the trees along Sparks Lane, I was searching out other interesting compositions along Sparks.  

Initially, we had gone down the road a bit and photographed directly down the road in the fog, which was a great scene, but I was still looking for something else.  Then I turned around.  The water from the creek was flowing across the road at a pretty good rate.  Then the sun was trying to break through the fog a bit, too.  I knew I wanted to use the water as a strong point in my composition, so I got down at a low angle and included as much of it as I could.  I adjusted my circular polarizer to knock off the glare from the water, then I set my aperture to F/16 so I could get a long shutter speed to blur the water.  The sun lighting up the right side of the frame a bit was just a bonus.

Aperture-priority, 1.3 sec, f/16, ISO 100, 24 mm

Everything came together for this scene....the fog, the water, the light.  It was a great morning.

Image created with my Canon 5D Mk IV and Tamron 24-70mm Lens.  All supported by my Sirui W-2204 Tripod and K-20x Ballhead.

Machine Falls

This past weekend I got the chance to meet up with a friend that was traveling from New York to Texas and show him a few waterfalls in Tennessee.

This turned out to be a much better trip than I had ever anticipated.  We've had so little rain here in the last several months I didn't really expect there to be much water anywhere.  The water level at our first waterfall, Rutledge Falls,  was OK.  It was definitely low, but it was still good.  Then we moved onto to one of my favorite falls, especially near my home, Machine Falls.  Machine Falls still had a pretty good amount of water, which made for great shooting.

I've been to and photographed Machine Falls more times than I can count.  It's always a bit of a challenge to come up with something different while I am there.  

Aperture Priority, F/16, ISO 100, 6 seconds

I tried a composition I have tried in the past, only this time I was able to do it with a very wide angle lens in the Tamron 15-30.  I basically climbed right up next to this lower fall and shoved the lens right in it's face.  Then I used a circular polarizer by Vu Filters to cut all the glare off the rocks and water.

Canon 5D III, Tamron 15-30, Vu Filters, Sirui W-2204 tripod and K-20 Ballhead

 

Spruce Flat Falls

Here's an image of Spruce Flat Falls located in the Tremont area of GSMNP.  This is a really nice waterfall with the upper section being about 30 feet tall.  It is about a mile hike to get to, however.  The trail for this fall begins at the Tremont Institute.  

I took this image using my Tamron 15-30mm lens and just got as close to the water as I could.  You can't shoot these waterfall scenes without a circular polarizer.  I used a special filter mounting system designed for the Tamron 15-30 by Vu Filters.  It allows me to have a polarizer on that lens.  I can also add additional filters if needed, like a neutral density or graduated filter.

Sony A7R II, Metabones Adapter, Tamron 15-30, VU Filters Polarizer, Sirui W-2204 Tripod and K-20 Ballhead.

Aperture Priority, F/16, ISO 100, 2 seconds, 16mm

 

Taking a break from birds

Several months back I was asked to do an article about long exposures using Tiffen ND (neutral density) filters, more specifically, the Tiffen Apex ND filter from their XLE Filter series.  The Apex is a 10 stop ND filter.  It is also equipped with a standard near IR blocker and a hot mirror to eliminate all IR pollution that you might normally get with long exposures.

This image was made at a lake close to my home.  It was taken near mid day, but using the filter I was able to get the exposure over a minute.  Which allowed me to show some movement in the clouds and water, leaving it looking much smoother than it was.

ISO 50, 24mm, F/22 @ 1 minute 14 seconds

Hover over the image to see camera settings.  Click the image to view it larger.

If you aren't familiar with using Solid ND Filters there are a few things to keep in mind.  You will need to compose and focus before attaching your filter.  Most likely you won't even be able to see through the camera after attaching the filter.  Be sure to switch your lens to manual focus.  If not, your camera will try to auto focus, which it will never be able to do, with the filter attached.  Another good tool to have is a ND Filter Calculator app to keep on your smartphone.  There are several of them that you can download for free and they all do the same thing.  You can put in your base exposure (aperture, ISO and shutter speed) and the number of stops of your ND filter and it does the math to calculate your new shutter speed.  It's super simple.  Even I can use it!

This image was made using my Sony A7R II, Tamron 24-70mm Lens and Tiffen Apex ND Filter.  Of course, a minute long exposure requires a very stable tripod.  For this shot I used my Sirui T-2205X and G-20X Ballhead.  Although this is designed to be more of a "travel" setup, it is more than sturdy enough to hold your wide angle lens for long exposure photography.

Bald River Falls

On the detour trip home from the Smoky Mountains, we got to swing by a little known place in Tennessee called Tellico Plains.  Although there are several places along the river in Tellico Plains to shoot and get great images, the main attraction is Bald River Falls.

Bald River Falls is a 90 foot waterfall.  It is easily viewed from a bridge that goes along Tellico River Road.  Some consider these falls to be the most impressive and scenic in all of East Tennessee.  I can certainly tell you it's worth the visit.  This was my third of fourth trip there but the first time during fall colors.  The colors did not disappoint! 

ISO 50, 30mm, F/22 @ 1 second

I made this image with my Sony A7R II, LA-EA3 Lens Adapter and Tamron 24-70mm F/2.8 Lens.  I also had my Marumi Ciruclar Polarizer on the front of my lens.  All mounted to my Sirui W-2204 Tripod, of course.

Mexico Beach Fishing Pier

During the last week, we had one sunrise in between workshops.  We decided to get up even earlier and make the drive over to Mexico Beach for sunrise.

I had never been here, but I heard a rumor that they had a big fishing pier and, since I am a sucker for those, I was on board.

I went with a specific objective in mind.  To try and capture longer exposures while the color was good.  I accomplished this by using a Tiffen Apex 10 Stop Neutral Density Filter.  Adding the filter really allowed the water to be a lot smoother which enabled more of a reflection of color off the water than you would have been able to get without the use of the filter.

ISO 400, 24mm, F/11 @ 25 seconds

I captured this image using my Sonay A7Rii, LA-EA3 Adapter, Tamron 24-70 Lens and Tiffen XLE Apex Filter.  Of course these long exposures can't be done without a solid platform.  I was using the Sirui W-2204 waterproof series tripod.  Since it is waterproof and sand proof, it was sure nice to leave a shoot on the beach and not have to run home and clean sand out of my tripod!

10 Stops of Neutral Density

Recently I had been working on an article on long exposure and I had the good fortune of trying out a new 10 Stop ND filter by Tiffen, the XLE Apex filter.

This filter is unique int he fact that it has a IR blocker and Hot Mirror added.  These are added to eliminate IR pollution that you might get when shooting really long exposures with these types of filters.

Once I got the filter, I headed out with my Sony A7R, Tamron 24-70 Lens and Sirui T-2205X Series Tripod looking for interesting long exposure scenes.  It didn't take me long to fall in love with the filter.  I knew just playing with it a bit I needed to get to the coast for some daytime long exposure shots.

Luckily I had a trip to Houston already planned, so I went a day early and basically started in Galveston and worked my way up and down the coast looking for subjects.

ISO 100, 40mm, F/14 @ 25 seconds

I came across this pier.  It was actually The Galveston Fishing Pier.  I found a place to park along the roadside a few hundred yards away, walked down to the waters edge to find a giant pile of rocks.  This was a welcomed sight!  Not only did it make a great foreground anchor, but there was no beach area here, so I didn't have to wait on swimmers or people to get out of the way.  The waves were crashing over the rocks as the surf was moving pretty good that day, too.  Bonus!

I adjusted my composition to include the pier in the background and capture the rocks with the dreamy effect of the surf from the long exposure in the foreground. Without this filter, my exposure would have been a fraction of a second and the effect wouldn't be near as cool as it turned out with the 25 second exposure.

I mentioned my tripod earlier, the Sirui T-2205X.  I absolutely love this little tripod for traveling.  It is very light, folds up really small and still holds up for use for these long exposure shots.  A tripod is a must have for these types of shots, too!

ISO 100, 24mm, F/14 @ 20 seconds

This is the exact same spot only a slightly different comp.  I also choose to create both of these as black & white images.  I believe these long exposure shots tend to look better in black & white, but that's all personal preference.  I hope to be sharing more of these types of long exposure shots with you that I captured in the near future.

All about ND Filters

I've been asked about ND filters at the last few workshops we've done, so I figured it's time to go over everything you need to know about ND filters.

What are ND filters?  

A ND filter is a specialty filter used to block a certain amount of light from reaching your camera's sensor.

Why would I want to block light?  

There are multiple reasons, but a few would be to slow your shutter speed down in order to do things like show movement, eliminate moving people from a photo or be able to shoot at a wide open aperture in bright daylight.

How are ND filter strengths labeled?

OK, let's talk about determining the strength of the ND filter.  Different manufacturers label ND filters differently.  Sometimes you may see a filter labeled as a ND4 filter,  sometimes you may see one labeled as a 0.6 ND Filter and sometimes it may be labeled as a 2 stop ND filter.  I'm going to attempt to explain why this is and how to know what strength a filter is by these numbers.

If you see a filter labeled with a ND #, like ND2, that is actually the attenuation factor of that filter.  I know...big word.  However, it's easier to remember it like this.  The number, in this case 2, would be the denominator, or bottom number, of a fraction.  So, if we have a ND2 filter, the fraction would be 1/2, so half the amount of light being allowed through the filter, or roughly 1 full stop.  A ND4 would be 1/4 the amount of light being allowed through the filter, or 2 stops.

Some manufacturers label ND filters in terms of their optical density.  Optical density is just a fancy way of describing the light blocking ability of the filter.  Those numbers will look like this: 0.6 ND Filter.  What you basically need to remember here is the higher the number, the more light that is blocked by the filter.

The most common way ND filters are refereed to are in stops.  Let's face it, as photographers we all talk in stops.  It's our language.  None of us really care about the optical density, we just want to know how many stops of light is our filter blocking. If you have a ND filter that is labeled with the Attenuation Factor or Optical Density, you can use the chart below to find out how many stops of light it is blocking.

Attenuation FactorOptical DensityLight Reduction in Stop #'s
ND20.31
ND40.62
ND80.93
ND161.24
ND321.55
ND641.86
ND10026 2/3
ND2562.48
ND4002.68 2/3
ND5002.79
ND1000310

 

Do ND Filters come in different shapes or sizes?

Yes.  They do.  Typically they will either be a round, screw on type filter or a square or rectangle shaped filter.

The round screw on types are pretty easy.  They screw on to the front of your lens threads and you would buy the size filter that you need for your lens.  For example, you have a lens with a 77mm filter thread, then you buy the 77mm round ND filter.  

The square or rectangular shaped filters come in various sizes.  They require a filter "holder" system in order to mount to your lens.  The "holder" system would consist of a ring that screws onto your lens filter threads and a "holder" that mounts to that ring that would have slots that you would slide your filter(s) into.

I prefer the screw on types myself because there tends be much less chance of light leak using these.

 

Are these the only types of ND Filters?

Not at all.  There are also Variable ND filters, Graduated ND Filters and do not forget in a pinch a Circular Polarizer can be used as a ND Filter.

A Variable ND Filter is a screw on type ND filter that has a variable amount of ND adjustment. So, you would turn it just like you do a circular polarizer to dial in how much light blockage you want.  Typically these filters will range from about 2-10 stops of light blockage. 

 

A Graduated ND Filter is most often in the square or rectangle format.  It is basically a ND Fitler with a graduation of ND effect.  Typically about half the filter has the ND effect.  So if you were in a situation where the sky was very bright and the foreground was dark, you would want to use a graduated ND to darken the sky, but have no effect on the foreground.  These also come in the round, screw on flavor, but they aren't as popular because the round ones limit your amount of control over the filter.  They also come in Hard Edge or Soft Edge.  A Hard Edge Graduated ND filter has an abrupt stop of graduation.  They would be best used in a situation where you would be photographing a flat horizon line, like at the beach. The Soft Edge Graduated ND Filter has the graduation taper off slower.  Those are best used in a situation where your foreground is not level, like mountains.   Graduated ND Filters also some in "reversed".  This means the graduation would be darker at the horizon line and fade out as it goes up.  You would use a Revers Graduated ND Filter when the horizon is much brighter than the rest of the sky, say at sunrise or sunset when the sun is right along the horizon line.

After saying all of that, I will tell you I do not regularly use Graduated ND Filters.   I typically take separate exposures while I'm in the field and blend them together using Photoshop.  This requires more post processing work, but it keeps me from lugging around extra filters and I feel it yields better results.

I typically keep Variable ND Filters in my bag at all times.  They are very convenient to use and eliminate the need for several filters in several different strengths.

Another thing to keep in mind is a circular polarizer can block a certain amount of light, too.  Depending on the brand of polarizer you have, it could block from 1-2 stops of light.  It can be used in a pinch to slow down your shutter speed, or if you have forgotten or do not own a ND Filter.

How much will an ND Filter slow down my shutter speed?

Let's take a look at how many stops of ND will have an effect on your shutter speed.

ND Filter In StopsShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter SpeedShutter Speed
0 Stops1/4000 second1/1000 second1/250 second1/60 second1/15 second1/4 second1 second4 seconds
1 Stop1/2000 second1/500 second1/125 second1/30 second1/8 second1/2 second2 seconds8 seconds
2 Stops1/1000 second1/250 second1/60 second1/15 second1/4 second1 second4 seconds16 seconds
3 Stops1/500 second1/125 second1/30 second1/8 second1/2 second2 seconds8 seconds30 seconds
4 Stops1/250 second1/60 second1/15 second1/4 second1 second4 seconds16 seconds1 minute
5 Stops1/125 second1/30 second1/8 second1/2 second2 seconds8 seconds30 seconds2 minutes
6 Stops1/60 second1/15 second1/4 second1 second4 seconds16 seconds1 minute4 minutes
6 2/3 Stops1/30 second1/8 second1/2 second2 seconds8 seconds30 seconds2 minutes8 minutes
8 Stops1/15 second1/4 second1 second4 seconds16 seconds1 minute4 minutes15 minutes
8 2/3 Stops1/20 second1/5 second1.6 seconds6 seconds25 seconds1 minute 40 seconds6 minutes26 minutes
9 Stops1/8 second1/2 second2 seconds8 seconds30 seconds2 minutes8 minutes30 minutes
10 Stops1/4 second1 second4 seconds16 seconds1 minute4 minutes15 minutes1 hour

You can see from the chart above that if you have a /4000th of a second shutter speed and add a 10 stop ND Filter to the front of your lens that will result in a shutter speed of 1/4 second.  Likewise if you have a shutter speed of 1 second with no filter and you add a 10 Stop ND, then you get a 15 minute shutter speed.

What kind of effect does this have on my images?

Let me show you a few examples.

ISO 400,  51mm,  F/8 @ 244 seconds

This is an image I made at sunrise on Folly Beach, SC.  I added a 10 stop ND filter to the front of my lens, which yielded a shutter speed of 244 seconds.  Without the filter my shutter speed would have been somewhere around 1/4 second.   The longer exposure here allowed the sensor to capture all the movement of the water  as a smooth, dreamy look.  My original shutter speed of 1/4 second would have frozen the water compared to this. 

ISO 100, 70mm, F/13 @ 25 seconds

This is an image that I took in the middle of the day in San Leon, TX.  After I added the 10 stop ND filter it gave me a resulting shutter speed of 25 seconds.  Although it isn't as long a shutter speed as the previous image, it was taken midday in much more light.  Without the filter I would have had a shutter speed of around 1/30th second.  The water was pretty choppy this day and the longer 25 second shutter speed created a much more visually appealing image.

Besides having ND Filters, you will also need a sturdy tripod since your exposures will be so long.  I use Sirui Tripods because of their stability and durability.  I would recommend them to anyone in the market for a good tripod.

That's all I have today.  I hope you learned a little something and I didn't take up too  much of your time. Happy Friday!